RSA–CRT is the most widely used implementation for RSA signatures. However, deterministic and many probabilistic RSA signatures based on CRT are vulnerable to fault attacks. Nevertheless, Coron and Mandal (Asiacrypt 2009) show that the randomized PSS padding protects RSA signatures against random faults. In contrast, Fouque et al. (CHES 2012) show that PSS padding does not protect against certain non-random faults that can be injected in widely used implementations based on the Montgomery modular multiplication. In this article, we prove the security of an infective countermeasure against a large class of non-random faults; the proof extends Coron and Mandal’s result to a strong model where the adversary can force the faulty signatures to be a multiple of one of the prime factors of the RSA modulus. Such non-random faults induce more complex probability distributions than in the original proof, which we analyze using careful estimates of exponential sums attached to suitable rational functions. The security proof is formally verified using appropriate extensions of EasyCrypt, and provides the first application of formal verification to provable (i.e. reductionist) security in the context of fault attacks.